New MMS book

The G2Voice Broadcast: Every Sunday at 10AM EST

With your hosts Bishop Mark Grenon and Bishop Joseph Grenon

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G2Voice Broadcast #084: Why do we have the “endocannabinoid” system in the body complete with receptors?

Sunday, April 22nd, 2018



NOTE: Spanish subtitling is being done each week now! Broadcasts 001-005, 064,065, 077-082 are now subtitled in Spanish!


G2Church Seminars


We are thinking about having a G2Church Seminar in Colorado! Please contact us at: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. if you are interested in attending a seminar in Colorado and what time of the year would be best for you.


Lifetime Membership in the Genesis II Church of Health and Healing!


Instead of renewing your G2 Church Membership yearly why not pay for a lifetime membership for a donation of 200 U.S. and be a G2 Church Member for LIFE!! For more information contact us at: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


You can now donate at: for the PRINTED book, “Imagine, A World Without DIS-EASE Is IT Possible?

This will help the Genesis II Church to do more worldwide! ALL donations for this VERY Informative Book go to the Genesis II Church of Health and Healing. Let’s get this book into tens of thousands of people around the world to open their eyes to the Truth about DIS-EASE!

Next week

G2Voice Broadcast #85: Rf frequencies are TOXIC to LIFE!

Weekly Testimonies


P.S.  The MMS has been really helpful with my husband's skin.  He started having problems about 17 years ago when he was sixty.  The least bump or scrape made huge bruises or literally tore off the top layer of his skin.  Doctors were no help. I was told to give him Vitamin K, but that didn't do much.  I was scared to death because I was afraid if he got in an accident with that kind of skin he could bleed to death before anyone could get to him.  But since I've had him on MMS, bruises are much smaller and heal much faster.  We haven't seen any scrapes.  HIs skin literally looks like it's stronger.


Children with ezcema

Ok thank u. Done the mms baths today on the little ones. First time in about 2 years since they went to sleep without itching non stop!

New Life!

I’m loving your write up on nutrition and have a huge turnaround in my health thanks to you and Aajonus vonderplantz. It has taken a year to see the results. All so much worth it. Life is looking up again. Cheers mate.

No more Autism and Pain!

Lucía Noelia Vides Magi También tuve un caso, el esposo de una de las mamis de NO MAS AUTISMO =) al dia síguente (tomó las gotas durante la noche y madrugada) no había mas dolores ni fiebre

Tooth infection

WildCamperVanMan. TV 1 year ago

mms got rid of my tooth infection id had for almost 18 months. nothing natural like ginger, garlic etc touched it. mms was my last ditch attempt of curing it before i had no option but to go to big pharma poisons. this week im putting my nan who is 89 on it for her arthritis.


Actually my arthritis does feel a little bit better. So I guess I will just keep doing what I'm doing and get better and better, LOL! 

Tumors gone!

I have been on the MMS 2 for 2 weeks and I was on the MMS with DMSO for 4 weeks. The stuff is killing my stomach.  But I had 3 large tumors in my neck from Lymphoma  and 2 of the 3 are gone. I was told by my oncologist that I seemed to be back to normal. I showed her the remnant of the remainder tumor she said it seemed normal but I do not feel that way as of now.  Is there a maintenance program I can use to keep going and get my stomach back. I will say this that the MMS was dine intervention for me.  I came home tired and worn out every day from work and put on Youtube with Bob Ross who paints pictures with big paint brushes. His voice will put me to sleep faster than anything else.  I woke up from a 2  1/2  hour nap and a man with a white straw hat and big turquoise was talking MMS upon waking up. I watched and here I am.  I say divine intervention.  Please help me with a continued maintenance program till I know and feel myself it is all gone.  Oh one more thing do you have contacts in Germany.  Thank You Very Much!

I want to thank all involved in this ministry

David C Urban


Hi there -thank you so much for your work. I have cured myself thanks to your information and now a facebook friend in Uganda has a son with an unconfirmed skin problem all over his scalp and is seeking help. I am desperatly trying to connect him with somebody in Uganda - I have been to the G2 site but it says it is down for maintenance. If you have the time I would so greatly appreciate any info I could pass on to my friend in regards to obtaining some sacraments there. God bless, Kaley

Ok Kaley, What were you cured from? Yes Give me your e-mail and I'll have samula contact you ok?

Thank you so much!! I had years of deep set impetigo/MRSA/staph infections, parasites and more. Most importantly my utter despair and hopelessness at life - this gave me hope, a physical cure, and another chance at life. Bless you and everything you do -

thank you so much x



I came across this report that I found interesting. It's about a 55-year-old man who attempted suicide . He had ingested about 100 mL of 28% sodium chlorite solution, 0.75 L of whiskey, and ibuprofen (12 tablets of 400 mg), after which he had attempted to hang himself. He was treated in hospital and survived.  

That's a lot of MMS but I'm thinking that maybe it helped to negate the toxicity of the whiskey and the ibuprofen he took :​)

Thanks for all you do to help all the suffering people ​​around the world.​

​ By the way, I thought your book was excellent. It's just what I always thought we need to explain to people why they are sick and how to get better without a doctor.​

​Mark Butler


Hello Archbishop;

I am applying for a promotion to Bishop. Please find attached the required video testimonials.

Thank you and the Genesis II Church of Health and Healing for this opportunity to touch lives in such a healing, positive way. I have been a conventionally trained nurse for 14 year and I have never had so much satisfaction helping people get well, like I do now.

Helping others to learn about the options.many natural options for health recovery is so rewarding. thank you for giving me the options that have been making so many lives better through inexpensive health recovery.

I'll attach another video in a separate email. 


Forever Your Health Advocate.

Neva Thomas

Health Director/Researcher

Why do we have the “endocannabinoid” system in the body complete with receptors?

      Never mind why is the endocannabinoid system in the body BUT, have you ever heard of the ENDO-CANNABINOID SYSTEM (ECS)? I feel a great obligation to proclaim TRUTH to the world and the NEED to know about and understand the amazing systems in the body. There is a major craze going on all over the world as more and more evidence comes out about the medicinal properties of Cannabinoids or CBD’s. Do you really know what a CBD does? Are ALL CBD’s equal. IS THC really important? Why can CBD be sold without a license and THC can’t? Is it because THC is doing most of the medicinal work or are all the cannabinoids needs in synergy to work better?

As you look into adding Cannabis to your life for pain, preventative maintenance, diabetes treatment, neurological issues, any many other health benefits and, YES cure for cancer, you need to know what you are actually allowing into your body. I’m sure everyone wants to know the best most efficacious Cannabinoid and how to take it into the body.

There are many ways and each has its own benefits.

      I personally was introduced to cannabis at a very young age of 11 in the 1968 by a Vietnam vet that brought some “Marijuana” back directly from Vietnam in his dufflebag! My friends and I were curious, Hey, it was the 60’s! Hahahaha! Anyways, I tried it and NOTHING! I wasn’t floating high or anything like that but, my friends were laughing and said they were high. I found out later on that some people NEED to literally “grow more CBD receptors” or have receptors that aren’t functioning correctly because of some blocked. TOXINS? I think I tried a few more times before I finally “got high”. So, that means that I have been “around” the use of Cannabis personally and with thousands of people that have used Cannabis without ANYONE overdosing, because it is non-toxic! And if you take too much you’ll pass out and wake up and eat the whole kitchen!!! Hahahaha.

      So, for 49+ years I’ve been VERY familiar with Cannabis and its side effects on me personally and others I’ve observed. I guess that makes me a VERY informed LAB RAT when it relates to how Cannabis effects my body. You will see from the videos and articles I’ve included in this newsletter that the majority of CLINICAL STUDIES have only been done on Mice and Monkeys, BUT mostly mice! Well, I submit to the world that millions, maybe BILLIONS, have been ingesting, smoking and eating Cannabis for thousands of years with documented evidence and even on cave walls of man consuming it. Many religions around the world as well as herbal “medicine men” have raved about its healing benefits from epilepsy, pain, anxiety, diabetes, reproductive benefits, relaxation, etc.

      I have been teaching the use of Cannabis, how to make it as well as how to take it as a sacrament of the Genesis II Church Of Health and Healing over 7 years with many people who have told me of incredible results. I’m not talking about an “add-on” to the other sacraments but a “stand alone” sacrament for anything from cancer to pain, from anxiety to autism and from diabetes to digestive issues. Just about EVERY neurological problem or better said, injury from toxins, has seen incredible results. To get those GREAT benefits though you have to have the whole plant and not the isolated compounds. You will see some benefits, but they will soon taper off as does isolated, artificial and synthesis vitamin and mineral supplements.

Our Bodies were designed to consume food in its whole form because all the vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and enzymes are bound together in one package and work synergistically to deliver the nutrition your body needs. Synthetic supplements give isolated or fractionated pieces of the whole. It is simply not the same. You’re not getting the full benefit nature intended. This is the same when it comes to THC and CBD’s. They all HAVE TO work together to get the most benefits. THC does things on its own as well as CBD’s, but when ALL WORK together much more happens and that is what we know right now! If one molecule is missing, or in the wrong form or the wrong amount, entire chains of metabolic processes will not proceed normally. We see this by the ways that vitamins and minerals work together. Vitamins and minerals are not functionally separable. They make each other work. Example: vitamin D is necessary for the body to absorb calcium. Copper is necessary for vitamin C activity. And so on. Mineral deficiencies can cause vitamin deficiencies, and vice versa.

The human body was not designed to work with isolated molecules but to work together with the whole molecular structure -SEE Last week’s G2Voice Broadcast for more facts about vitamin and mineral supplements and how they work in the body:

I can now tell everyone after 7 years of PERSONALLY helping people with all kinds of illnesses of the body,people recover faster when people did drops under the tongue and suppositories at night with correctly prepared  WHOLE plant Cannabis oil!

NOTE: We don’t sell or take donations for it by the way!

We only teach people how to make it themselves, i.e. “SELFCARE”. We interviewed Rick Simpson, the Phoenix Tears author and speaker about Cannabis oil. He is a great guy and a great human that wants to get this information out to the world also! His wife was cured by the G2Sacaments of a Urinary Tract Infection or UTI that the doctors wanted to treat with Chemo! With the Protocols of our Church, she was CURED in less than two weeks! Rick has seen over 5,000 cured from cancer with his cannabis oil recipe.

Here is the G2Voice Broadcast with Rick Simpson:

You can get his book at: or


The battle is on to keep the benefits of the Cannabis plant  from being destroyed by Big Pharma/Medical industry and Governments! They want to control it and make of the profits what they can while they will ultimately  destroy its benefits to get people back to their TOXIC DRUGS!

Monsanto Creates First Genetically Modified Strain of Marijuana:

Monsanto and Bayer are Maneuvering to Take Over the Cannabis Industry:

Big Corporations Pushing for Genetically Modified Weed Industry:

GMO Weed? Connections Alleged Between Uruguay Marijuana Legalization, Monsanto and Soros:

Marijuana Advocates to DEA: Talk to the Hand

The Drug Enforcement Administration says marijuana lacks medical value. So why did the U.S. government file a patent for cannabis — specifying that the plant has multiple therapeutic benefits — as far back as 1999?


The ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM is an incredible system that only, until  1964,  has any SCIENTIFIC study formally been done by Prof. Dr. Rafael Mechoulam (Rafi) in Israel.  He discovered the active ingredient in cannabis called THC or Tetrahydrocannabinol. There have been found over 100 more cannabinoids and cannabinoid-like compounds now identified and probably more to come.

This is a relativity NEW field of Laboratory research that is finding a lot of interesting things about the ENDO-CANNABINOID system by reverse engineering BUT, much more is coming as we understand the design of the body. What I am saying is that this is NOT an exhaustive study on this topic. Scientists are learning more truths each day about how complex the body was designed so that we might never know EXACTLY what is going on in the body with this system. But as far as we know in humans, it is doing great things and works GREAT with the Genesis II Church Sacraments as long as not entering the stomach during daily protocols.


NOTE: DO NOT EAT ANY CANNABIS DURING THE DAILY PROTOCOLS FOR IT IS HIGH IN ANTIOXIDANTS WHICH WILL NEUTRALIZE CHLORINE DIOXIDE! Sub-lingual dosing for pain during the daily dosing is ok because it is assimilated into the blood differently as well as smoking or vaporizing Cannabis.


Let’s familiarize everyone with a few terms to know in regard to this topic.




prefix: endo-

  1. internal; within.






noun: cannabinoid; plural noun: cannabinoids

  1. any of a group of closely related compounds that include cannabinol and the active constituents of cannabis.







noun: cannabinol

  1. a crystalline compound whose derivatives, especially THC, are the active constituents of cannabis.



mass noun Chemistry

  • Tetrahydrocannabinol, a crystalline compound that is the main active ingredient of cannabis.

The Scientist Who Discovered THC Has Never Smoked Weed

Raphael Mechoulam made cannabis’ biggest breakthrough in 1964, but has still never taken a puff.

by Zach Harris

86 year-old Raphael Mechoulam is known as the “father of marijuana research.” In the 1960’s the college professor headed up cannabis research at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and discovered the compounds THC and CBD. But while Mechoulam was one of the first people to discover the incredible importance of marijuana, he has gone his whole life without ever smoking, eating, vaping or using cannabis in any form or fashion.

In an interview with Culture magazine, Mechoulam admitted that his lifelong research and dedication to cannabis has never lead the scientist to twist up a doobie or pack a bong.

“I have never used it. First of all, I am still interested but as I did research and we had official supply of cannabis, obviously if we had used it for non-scientific reasons if people had come to know about it that would have stopped our work. Basically, neither I nor my students were interested.”

Mechoulam also told reporters about the days before cannabis was popular and how we was able to - semi-illegally - obtain the hashish that lead to the groundbreaking discovery of THC.

“I went to the administrative head of my institute and asked him whether he had a contact with the police and he said, ‘Sure, no problem.’ He called the number two person at the police at that time. They had been in the army together or something of that sort. From the other side I could hear him saying, ‘Is he reliable?’ And the head of the institute said, ‘Of course he’s reliable.’ So he invited me over to the police, and I took five kilos of hashish.” Mechoulam told Culture. “It broke the laws. It turned out I was not allowed to have it, and he was not allowed to give it to me. It was the Ministry of Health that should have permitted it, but in a small country, I went to the Ministry of Health, and I apologized, and any time I needed more hashish I went to the Ministry of Health and had no problems.”

Despite his smoking abstinence, Mechoulam hasn’t slowed down his participation in the ever-expanding world of Israeli cannabis. Even into his retirement, the scientist still consults with Israel’s Ministry of Health and helped push the government agency to approve the country’s nationwide medical marijuana program.

Mechoulam continues to work with the Ministry of Health to better serve Israel’s medical marijuana patients, but it still doesn’t appear that the groundbreaking chemist will be sparking up anytime soon.

Dr David Allen the discovery of the Endocannabinoid System

This video gives you the history of the research of Cannabis. Watch it! There is a lot of good info here:

The Scientist (2015) Medical Marijuana: Studying For a Higher Purpose - Prof. Dr. Raphael Mechoulam

What Is THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) And What Does It Do?

We talk a lot about THC. Here’s everything you need to know about this incredible chemical compound.

 Published 3 months ago

Adam Drury 


Throughout its life, a cannabis plant will produce more than 400 different chemical compounds. But the presence of just one of those hundreds of compounds has sealed cannabis’ fate for nearly a century, making it one of the most persecuted plants on the planet. And all because this one compound happens to interact with the human body in such a way as to produce a complex signature of effects—a “high” unlike any other. Its name is THC. What is THC and what does THC stand for? Tetrahydrocannabinol. More importantly, what does THC do to the brain?

THC is one of the 113 chemical compounds found only in the plant genus Cannabis, which scientists call cannabinoids. THC, however, is unique among all the rest for one, massively important reason: it’s the most potently psychoactive.

But exactly what is THC, and why does it produce the wide range of pleasurable (and sometimes not-so-pleasing) effects it does? What does THC do to the brain? How does it affect the body? Is it safe, or as dangerous as heroin, like the federal government says?

Decades of unanswered questions, confusion, and misinformation have distorted the public’s understanding of cannabis and the psychoactive cannabinoid that has made it the most popular illicit drug in the world.

This comprehensive guide to THC aims to set the record straight. In addition to essential information about THC, we focus in on the importance of the cannabinoid for recreational and medical users, survey the current research on the drug, and share our thoughts about what the future holds for tetrahydrocannabinol.

THC 101: The Fundamentals Of Tetrahydrocannabinol

Let’s start with the basics: what is THC and what does THC stand for?

THC is an acronym for the unwieldy and eight-syllable full name of the chemical compound in weed that makes you high. Tetrahydrocannabinol. Its chemical name is (–)-trans-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol if you want to get really technical.

The word is imposing at first, but with a little practice, you’ll find it rolls off the tongue. Its elegance is in its meter, three trochees followed by an iambic flourish. TE-tra-HY-dro-CAN-na-bin-OL. See? Easy!

Now that you sound like an expert, let’s actually make you into one. Here’s your fundamental fact sheet about THC.

delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol Is Psychoactive

For most people, psychoactivity is as awesome as it sounds. The word refers to the way THC stimulates or “activates” specific psychological responses generally, but not always, associated with euphoria. In short, THC is psychoactive because it affects the mind.

Of course, the mind and body are connected, and therefore the psychoactive effects of cannabis are both psychological and physiological.

We have the pioneering scientist Dr. Allyn Howlett to thank for making the discovery that showed us why. In 1988, she uncovered where and how THC was attaching to the brain. In short, she discovered the secret link between tetrahydrocannabinol and the human endocannabinoid system (ECS).

THC And The Endocannabinoid System: The Secret To Why You’re High


Tetrahydrocannabinol? Endocannabinoid system? Understanding the biochemistry of cannabis definitely requires picking up some new vocabulary. But they’re key to understanding what THC is and how it affects us.

In fact, the key makes a good explanatory metaphor. The ECS is like a vast system of locks, or chemical receptors, and keys, the chemicals that bind to them. Some keys only work on a specific lock. Other keys fit in multiple locks. The human body has evolved to produce its own keys, or “endogenous cannabinoids,” for those locks.If you’re a runner, you already know all about this. That runner’s high you crave is caused by anandamide (the key) binding with cannabinoid receptors (the locks) in your nervous system. Anandamide is THC’s endogenous equivalent. Now that’s getting high on your own supply!

Amazingly, the cannabinoids the cannabis plant produces happen to bind to those same receptors. They’re keys from nature that fit the locks in our ECS. That doesn’t mean humans evolved for cannabis, however. Rather, humans have taken advantage of the fact for enjoyment and health. And we’ve been doing it for millennia.

What Does THC Do To The Brain?

When you consume cannabis, you introduce its cannabinoids into your body. Once inside, they’re metabolized and enter the bloodstream. From there, they bind to receptors CB1 and CB2, which are concentrated in the brain and central nervous system.

Astonishingly, there are 10 times more CB1 receptors in the brain than μ-opioid receptors, which are responsible for the effects of morphine. CB2 receptors hang out exclusively on the cells of the immune system. For that reason, cannabis has significant medicinal applications, in addition to its more popular recreational uses.

So what does THC do to the brain? THC isn’t the only cannabinoid that can bind to CB1 and CB2 receptors. But when it does, the ECS stimulates the release of dopamine in the brain, creating a sense of euphoria and relaxation. In short, a high.

How THC Gets You High

CB1 receptors throughout the brain and nervous system modulate movement, memory, cognition, sensory perceptions, and even time perception. According to NIDA, tetrahydrocannabinol “over activates” the functions typically regulated by the ECS, like mood, appetite, cognition, and perception.

Ultimately, it’s the sum total of all of these changes that creates the overall sensation we love to call “being high”. And it accounts for why everyone’s high is unique, and why highs can vary from buzzed to baked to way, way too high. There are just so many factors at play. Changes that feel good to someone might make someone else feel uncomfortable.

Then, there are the more mysterious effects of delta-9-THC on the brain. Remember anandamide, our body’s own version of THC? Researchers believe anandamide may have something to do with our brain’s ability to forget.

At first glance, this fact seems to confirm the oft-cited concern that cannabis use reduces short-term memory capabilities. Yet the power to forget can be incredibly beneficial for those suffering from traumatic memories, like people with PTSD. Hence the promising findings that tetrahydrocannabinol can treat a range of psychological disorders related to trauma.

What Does Tetrahydrocannabinol Do To The Body?

THC doesn’t just bind to receptors in your brain. Their network extends throughout the body. Most of the bodily sensations you experience when you consume cannabis are actually the result of changes in your brain. But cannabinoids can also act on ECS receptors all through the body, creating a range of beneficial effects.

Importantly, there are receptors in the immune system, which is why THC can act as a powerful anti-inflammatory, but can also reduce the immune system’s effectiveness.

In the digestive tract, THC can stimulate the release of the “hunger hormone” ghrelin and help ease nausea. A little morsel of cannabis history: despite prohibition, the FDA has approved a synthetic form of THC as an appetite stimulant and an antiemetic for AIDS and chemotherapy patients.

There are even CB2 receptors in our skin. Cannabis topical creams are quickly becoming popular as pain relievers and skincare products. The ability to absorb THC into the skin means people can use the cannabinoid for therapeutic benefits without the psychotropic effects.

The Medicinal Benefits Of Tetrahydrocannabinol

Since THC has become synonymous with marijuana in our everyday lexicon, it can be easy to overlook or discount the medicinal benefits of the cannabinoid. And while it’s true that the chemical is highly prized by recreational users, researchers continue to identify innovative ways to use it as a medicine.


We’ve already mentioned how THC affects the body’s immune system: it’s a powerful anti-inflammatory drug. Inflammation is an underlying factor that contributes to or complicates a wide range of diseases, which means tetrahydrocannabinol has a role to play in treating all of them.

From autoimmune diseases to neuro-degenerative disorders like multiple sclerosis to depression, cannabis has demonstrated its potency as a therapeutic treatment.


The potential to use cannabis as part of a cancer treatment is one of the most promising—and most overstated—of THC’s benefits. It’s far more likely that a physician will prescribe cannabis as a treatment for the harsh side-effects of cancer treatments like chemotherapy and radiation.

However, studies are beginning to identify the “cancer-killing” properties of tetrahydrocannabinol. According to researchers who’ve investigated the effects of cannabis on tumors in animals, THC can cause cancer cells to eat themselves. The results are incredible: shrunken tumors and a reduction in the prevalence of cancer cells.

Mood Disorders

In addition to helping people with PTSD process and forget traumatic memory associations, tetrahydrocannabinol’s short-term effects can improve mood disorders like depression and anxiety. Some have even suggested THC can help people with ADHD.

There is somewhat of a double-edged sword to using THC as a mood disorder treatment, though. Some studies have found that long-term effects of cannabis use can hasten the onset of certain psychological disorders. If you’re more prone to schizophrenia or psychosis, regular cannabis use can make you more vulnerable to those symptoms.

Chronic Pain

One of the most popular medical uses for THC is as a pain-reliever. And compared to the dangerous and addictive opioids that are flooding the pharmaceutical market in the United States, cannabis is incredibly safe.

From temporary muscle soreness to constant neuropathic pain, THC’s ability to reduce information and stimulate the release of dopamine—just like opioids—make it such a powerful medicine for treating pain and related symptoms.

Sleep Disorders

Inducing euphoria and relaxation, two effects associated with THC’s recreational use, are also helpful for treating sleep disorders. Around 1 out of every 3 people experience some form of insomnia. And while prescription sleep aids can help in the short term, they’re ineffective and sometimes dangerous with long-term use.

But the old cliche of the “midnight toker” has emerged for exactly this reason. Cannabis relaxes both mind and body. Certain strains, traditionally indicas, have stronger sedative effects than others.

Digestive Disorders

Even the FDA has recognized THC’s ability to soothe pain and reduce nausea and other symptoms related to gastrointestinal distress. Thanks to endocannabinoid receptors in the digestive tract, cannabis can help folks suffering from severe GI-tract diseases like Crohn’s and irritable bowel syndrome.

This list of the medical benefits of tetrahydrocannabinol is impressive. And as barriers to research crumble, it will only continue to get longer.

THC And Recreational Cannabis Use

Despite its medicinal properties, THC’s claim to fame (and infamy) is the euphoric high it produces. Recreational use of marijuana is all about dialing in the perfect ratio of effects for each individual. And the recreational market, especially where it’s above ground, continues to develop new and innovative ways of getting high.

Whether it’s new strains boasting previous unheard of THC concentrations, new devices for obtaining and consuming cannabis concentrates, or new techniques for produces the highest quality edibles, the recreational market is no doubt one of the most exciting emerging horizons in the cannabis industry worldwide.

At the moment, no trend dominates the recreational cannabis scene more than concentrates. So what is THC concentrate?

THC Concentrates And The Brave New World Of Dabbing

There are a few methods for extracting cannabinoids from the herbaceous matter of dried cannabis flowers. Some are safer than others. But the objective for each of them is the same: extract the maximum amount of cannabinoids and terpenes from the cannabis plant.

Butane, CO2 and alcohol extraction methods each have their own merits. And each is able to produce cannabis concentrates with THC concentration levels around 90 percent or higher. Compare that to the average of 25-30 percent THC boasted by the most potent cannabis strains, and you can see why concentrates have become so popular among recreational users.

In final form, concentrates are rich and flavorful substances with an amber color and sticky, gooey texture. They can be consumed purely, or mixed with edible waxes, oils and tinctures in the forms of beverages and tasty treats.

One method of consuming concentrates, however, has catapulted to popularity among recreational users: dabbing. Dabbing is the process of super-heating a glass or metallic element, placing a dab of concentrate on it, and inhaling the ensuing vapors.

Concentrate extraction removes all the bitter plant matter from the cannabis. Yet it maintains the presence of the plant terpenes that give cannabis its taste and smell. Hence, the experience of dabbing, or inhaling the vapor of sublimated concentrates, provides incomparably rich flavors compared to just smoking flowers.

Cannabis Strains With The Highest Concentration Of Tetrahydrocannabinol

Dabbing affords recreational users a massive dose of tetrahydrocannabinol, far greater than any herbaceous cannabis could provide. In other words, dabbing will make you higher than you ever thought possible, and certainly higher than you could get otherwise.

Yet for some, inhaling vapors with upwards of 90 percent tetrahydrocannabinol creates too strong of an effect. This can tip the euphoria of a good high into the anxiousness of a bad one. In that case, recreational users seek out strains with high THC concentrations. Here are some of the most potent THC-dominant strains around.

  • Godfather OG // Indica // 34.04 percent THC
  • Super Glue // Hybrid // 32.14 percent THC
  • Strawberry Banana // Hybrid // 31.62 percent THC
  • Venom OG Kush // Indica // 31.04 percent THC

As you may have noticed, the prevalence of the “OG” moniker reveals that these “ocean grown” strains hail from the California region. With an ideal climate and the most established breeding and cultivation programs, the strongest cannabis strains in the world come from sunny CA.

Fire It Up! Why You Need Heat To Enjoy THC

Since we’ve taken a good look at the recreational dimensions of tetrahydrocannabinol, now’s a good time to mention a very important fact about consuming THC.

In it’s “raw form,” tetrahydrocannabinol is totally inert and will do nothing for you. Again, the form in which tetrahydrocannabinol manifests in cannabis plants is inactive. If you ate a handful of dried cannabis flowers, you wouldn’t get high. But you would have a stomach ache trying to digest the plant fibers! You need heat to make tetrahydrocannabinol work!

So what does THC do when you apply heat to it.

Technically speaking, the cannabinoid that appears in cannabis is THCA. The “A” designates its acidic form. It takes heat to convert THCA to the psychoactive delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol. That’s why you have to apply a flame to dried cannabis. Not just to combust the buds to produce smoke to inhale, but to actually activate the THC.

That activation process is called decarboxylation, or “decarb” for short. Decarbing your cannabis is an absolutely indispensable step when making edibles. Without it, you’re just eating a bunch of raw THCA.

But heating THC to the point of decarboxylation is challenging. It’s too easy to apply too much heat, which results in boiling off the tetrahydrocannabinol completely. Not good!

What The Future Holds For THC

While breeders continue to craft strains with record-breaking tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations, THC’s future is undeniably in the realm of concentrates.

In fact, one of the most important realizations to come out of dabbing culture has profound implications for the future of cannabis in general. The “entourage effect” refers to the synergistic interactions between tetrahydrocannabinol, terpenes, and other cannabinoids. Concentrate production keeps these compounds intact. And that means you don’t just inhale pure THC vapor, but vapor consisting of all of those chemicals combined.

One thing we know is that on its own, THC’s effects are is kind of a “directionless.” There’s no way to determine where, how, or how much it will interact with various parts of the ECS.

It seems that terpenes, however, which are basically the plants’ essential oils, aren’t just there for smell and taste. They also seem to act as guard rails, allowing users to “steer” THC into different chemical pathways and thus, produce different effects.

Knowledge about these interactions is still in its infancy. But recreational users, not researchers, are paving the way by experimenting with different terpene profiles and cannabinoid concentrations. And the demand they’re causing for concentrates is responsible for many of the recent innovations in extraction and vaping techniques.

Final Hit: What Is THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) And What Does THC Do?

Congratulations on reaching the end of this comprehensive guide to the fundamentals of tetrahydrocannabinol, what it is, and what it does. It’s safe to say you’re now a well-informed expert on the subject!

Throughout this guide, we’ve tackled the questions, issues, and trends that matter most. We began with the basics: what does THC stand for. And we’ve dove deep into the multifaceted answers to the question, what does THC do to the brain and the body? We’ve looked at the importance of tetrahydrocannabinol for medical cannabis patients. And we’ve taken a close look at the exciting trends in the recreational scene.

Our hope is that, for new or veteran cannabis users, the simply curious, and everyone in between, this guide will help you seek out and find the cannabis products that will craft the best experience for you. Enjoy!

The Science of the Endocannabinoid System: How THC Affects the Brain and the Body

After several decades of research, scientists studying the effects of marijuana made several important discoveries. Not only did they identify the active ingredient in marijuana, they also discovered where and how it works in the brain—via a new system they called the endocannabinoid (EC) system. The EC system—named after the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa and its active ingredient delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)—is a unique communications system in the brain and body that affects many important functions, including how a person feels, moves, and reacts.

The natural chemicals produced by the body that interact within the EC system are called cannabinoids, and like THC, they interact with receptors to regulate these important body functions. So what makes the EC system unique and how does THC’s impact on this system affect a person’s memory, risk for accidents, and even addiction?

Figure 1: The Endocannabinoid (EC) System and THC




How Cannabinoids Work Differently From Other Neurotransmitters

Brain cells (neurons) communicate with each other and with the rest of the body by sending chemical “messages.” These messages help coordinate and regulate everything we feel, think, and do. Typically, the chemicals (called neurotransmitters) are released from a neuron (a presynaptic cell), travel across a small gap (the synapse), and then attach to specific receptors located on a nearby neuron (postsynaptic cell). This spurs the receiving neuron into action, triggering a set of events that allows the message to be passed along.

But the EC system communicates its messages in a different way because it works “backward.” When the postsynaptic neuron is activated, cannabinoids (chemical messengers of the EC system) are made “on demand” from lipid precursors (fat cells) already present in the neuron. Then they are released from that cell and travel backward to the presynaptic neuron, where they attach to cannabinoid receptors.

So why is this important?  Since cannabinoids act on presynaptic cells, they can control what happens next when these cells are activated. In general, cannabinoids function like a “dimmer switch” for presynaptic neurons, limiting the amount of neurotransmitter (e.g., dopamine) that gets released, which in turn affects how messages are sent, received, and processed by the cell.

 How Does THC Affect the EC System and Behavior?

When a person smokes marijuana, THC overwhelms the EC system, quickly attaching to cannabinoid receptors throughout the brain and body. This interferes with the ability of natural cannabinoids to do their job of fine-tuning communication between neurons, which can throw the entire system off balance.

Because cannabinoid receptors are in so many parts of the brain and body, the effects of THC are wide-ranging: It can slow down a person’s reaction time (which can impair driving or athletic skills), disrupt the ability to remember things that just happened, cause anxiety, and affect judgment. THC also affects parts of the brain that make a person feel good—this is what gives people the feeling of being “high.” But over time THC can change how the EC system works in these brain areas, which can lead to problems with memory, addiction, and mental health.

Refer to Figure 2 to see areas of the brain with cannabinoid receptors, then locate those areas on the chart to study some of the different effects of THC on the user.

Figure 2: Locations of Cannabinoid Receptors in the Brain



8 Amazing Facts About the Endocannabinoid System – and Why We Should Tell the World About It

By Mary Biles

Guest writer for Wake -Up World

Did you know your body has an endocannabinoid system? A year ago I didn’t either.

I’m no doctor, but I thought I was familiar with the key biological systems in the body. Turns out though, I was wrong. That’s because unless you’re a research scientist or work in the field of medical cannabis, it’s unlikely you’ll ever have been told about the endocannabinoid system. And yet, it has been hailed as “the most important physiologic system involved in establishing and maintaining human health.”

Why do so few people know about the endocannabinoid system?

So what’s the big mystery? Well, it might have something to do with how the endocannabinoid system (ECS) was discovered. Back in the 1990s scientists were trying to understand how THC, the psychoactive substance in the cannabis plant, elicits its effect on the body. What they uncovered was a complex network of receptors (CB1) in the brain and central nervous system that were a perfect fit for the THC molecule.

Soon after another type of receptor (CB2) was discovered in the immune system, gut and many of the body’s major organs. But that was only part of the puzzle. The hunt was on to find out whether the body produced its own cannabis-like chemicals, and with the identification of the first endocannabinoid Anandamide, they had their answer.

What does the endocannabinoid system do?

What scientists have realised is that the endocannabinoid system fine-tunes most of our vital physiological functions, bringing balance to everything from sleep, appetite, pain, inflammation, memory, mood and even reproduction. So in basic terms, it’s like a conductor of an orchestra, ensuring that no one section is drowning out the other, with the end result a perfectly harmonised symphony between body and mind.

Sounds like pretty important work, right? Well, you’d be right. That’s why it’s vital that the ECS becomes as much part of everyday parlance as the immune system. So to get the ball rolling, here are 8 fascinating facts about the totally awesome endocannabinoid system.

1. Humans aren’t alone in having an ECS

As humans beings we’re not special for having an ECS. Not only is the endocannabinoid system found in all vertebrates, but scientists also discovered cannabinoid receptors in non-vertebrate sea-squirts

2. CB1 receptors are the most abundant neurotransmitter receptors in the brain

Most of us have heard of neurotransmitters – they’re the chemicals that communicate information throughout the brain and body. Serotonin and dopamine are perhaps the most well known examples, but it’s the endocannabinoid Anandamide, also classed as a neurotransmitter, that has the most receptors in the brain.

3. Endocannabinoids signal backwards

Most neurotransmitters communicate in one direction: from the signaling neuron to the postsynoptic neuron. But in the endocannabinoid system, it works in the opposite direction, which is called retrograde signaling. This means that if a receptor is being over- or under-stimulated, it signals backwards across the synapse telling the signaling neuron to change its behaviour, creating a kind of feedback loop. So in effect, rather than distributing information like other neurotransmitters, it acts like a kind of dimmer switch, turning activity up or down in order to return the body to homeostasis.

4. Increased endocannabinoid system activity has been noted in many diseases

As the endocannabinoid system’s modus operandi is to bring balance to the body, it’s no surprise then that scientists have observed elevated ECS activity in a number of illnesses. Everything from neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, to rheumatoid arthritis and cancer, have shown changes in endocannabinoid levels and greater receptor expression. The conclusion that has been most widely reached is that this increased activity denotes the ECS trying to fulfil its role of returning the body to equilibrium again.

Also see: Over 100 Scientific Studies Agree: Cannabis Annihilates Cancer

5. ‘Endocannabinoid System Deficiency’ may be a cause of some illnesses

But what happens if the ECS becomes depleted? Scientists have observed how in certain conditions associated with oversensitivity to pain such as migraines, fibromyalgia and IBS, the ECS appears to have become weakened. The theory is known as Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency, with the corollary being that by supplementing the body with compounds from the cannabis plant, this deficiency can be corrected and the symptoms improved.

6. The ECS explains why medicinal cannabis has a therapeutic effect

Prior to 20th century prohibition, cannabis had been used for thousands of years to treat a whole host of ailments from epilepsy, headaches, arthritis, pain, depression and nausea. Back then nobody knew why the plant showed such therapeutic versatility. The discovery of the endocannabinoid system soon shone new light onto the medicinal effects of cannabis. Sadly, this has coincided with a time when the vast majority of the population have been precluded from accessing it.

According to Dustin Sulak, a leading medical cannabis expert:

Research has shown that small doses of cannabinoids from cannabis can signal the body to make more endocannabinoids and build more cannabinoid receptors… I believe that small, regular doses of cannabis might act as a tonic to our most central physiologic healing system.”

7. You don’t have to break the law to give your endocannabinoid system a boost

Currently, medical cannabis-friendly countries are in the minority across the planet. So what can you do if can’t legally access the plant? Well, you could consider trying CBD, a non-psychoactive compound in the cannabis plant, that has a whole host of health benefits such as reducing inflammation, calming feelings of anxiety, and even lowering the frequency of epileptic seizures. CBD is normally extracted from cannabis plants with less than 0.2% THC, commonly referred to as hemp or industrial hemp, allowing it to be bought legally in most countries worldwide.

Another option is to peel yourself off the sofa and get moving. Scientists have found that prolonged aerobic exercise increases levels of the feel-good endocannabinoid, Anandamide.

Diet is also a useful target. Increasing Omega 3 found in oily fish or healthy seeds like flax or hemp, can help support endocannabinoid brain signalling. Leafy green vegetables are also thought to stimulate the ECS as they contain beta-caryophyllene which activates the CB2 receptor.

Also see: 6 Plants Other Than Cannabis That are High in Healing Cannabinoids

8. Most doctors know very little about the endocannabinoid system

With the ECS playing such a central role in our health, you would think that any self respecting member of the medical profession would have some knowledge of its existence. But in mainstream medicine, the endocannabinoid system remains rather a pariah.

In 2013 a survey was conducted asking medical school in the United States whether the ECS formed part of their curriculum. The authors found that only “13% teach the endocannabinoid system to future doctors.”

A lot can change in four years, and while in some European countries such as the UK and Spain the ECS does make it onto some medical school syllabuses, it cannot be denied that the majority of professionals in charge of our healthcare remain very much in the dark.

So now you’re endocannabinoid savvy, there’s no turning back. Join me and start spreading the word to all that will listen. It’s time that the ECS is given the attention it deserves both by our healthcare providers and the public at large. If like me you feel moved to take action, why not start by speaking to your doctor? Have they heard of the endocannabinoid system? You never know, perhaps you are the very person to inform them.



7 Ways Cannabis Can Protect the Brain

By Mary Biles

Guest writer for Wake Up World

Cannabis kills brain cells, right? Think again…

It’s true, most of us can think of at least one committed stoner with a memory of a goldfish and a vacant, thousand yard stare. So it may seem counter-intuitive to suggest that the cannabis plant can actually protect the brain and prevent certain neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s from forming.

And yet, even though the US government officially denies any such therapeutic use of cannabis, it has taken out a patent on cannabinoids saying they ‘are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and HIV dementia’.

So, instead of damaging memory it would seem that cannabis could actually do quite the opposite, and even protect against age related memory loss and dementia.

The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) – a therapeutic target:

Scientists have known for some time that the body’s Endocannabinoid System – the complex network of chemical compounds and receptors found throughout the central nervous (CB1) and the immune system (CB2) – is directly involved in the mechanisms of diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.  An increased CB2 expression (1) found in post-mortem brains Alzheimer’s patients has been thought to be the ECS’s attempt to counteract the chronic inflammation found in the disease, while in another study (2) on Alzheimer’s patients, reduced levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide were found, although conversely were elevated in Parkinson’s disease (3).

Researchers believe then that by targeting the Endocannabinoid system, therapeutic answers can be found for many of the neurodegenerative diseases affecting people in the 21st century. And much research is being carried out into how phytocannabinoids like THC and CBD can not only treat disease progression, but also even prevent certain neurodegenerative disorders from happening.

So why exactly is cannabis being posited as the brain protector of the future?

1. Cannabis protects the brain by reducing inflammation

It’s commonly held that chronic inflammation is at the root of many illnesses, including Alzheimer’s. Although it still remains unclear whether inflammation is a by product or a direct contributing factor, bringing an excessive inflammatory response into balance again, is generally believed to be of benefit.

Gary Wenk, PhD, professor of neuroscience, immunology and medical genetics at Ohio State University, has studied how to combat brain inflammation for over 25 years. He says, ‘PET imaging studies of humans have shown that after age thirty the brain gradually displays increasing evidence of inflammation. With advancing age, brain inflammation continues to worsen leading to a decline in the production of new neurons, called neurogenesis, that are important for making new memories’.

He coined the phrase ‘one puff is enough’ after suggesting that ingesting small amounts of cannabis over years can be enough to protect the brain against inflammation, saying ‘the evidence available from studies of humans and animal models of Alzheimer’s disease do indicate that long-term, low-dose daily exposure, during mid-life, to the complex blend of compounds found in the marijuana plant can effectively slow the brain processes underlying Alzheimer’s disease’.

2. Cannabis is a powerful antioxidant protecting against toxic build up in the brain

As well as patenting Cannabinoids as neuroprotectants, the US government also named them antioxidants. But the two qualities are indelibly linked.

An ageing brain has a tendency to accumulate excessive levels of glutamate, a neurotransmitter that is involved with nerve cell signalling. This can lead to glutamate toxicity, an overstimulation of the cell and ultimately cell death. When glutamate causes cellular damage, it becomes an excitotoxin. Excitotoxicity is viewed as a potential cause of many neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system, as well as strokes and hearing loss.

In one study (4) carried out on rats, the cannabinoid Cannabidiol was ‘was demonstrated to reduce hydroperoxide toxicity in neurons. In a head to head trial of the abilities of various antioxidants to prevent glutamate toxicity, cannabidiol was superior to both alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate in protective capacity.’  And in another, (5) THC was shown to reduce the levels of glutamate in the brain following a traumatic brain injury.

An additional age related toxicity that researchers believe may bring about the onset of diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s is excessive levels of iron in the body.

Researchers from Pontifical Catholic University in Brazil (6) examined the relationship between high levels of iron and cell death in neurodegenerative diseases. In particular they studied the potential use of CBD, which they found may protect the rapid cell death associated with iron.

3. Cannabis helps promote new brain cell growth

This is the one that really stops people in their tracks. Surely cannabis kills off brain cells, right? While it’s true in young, adolescent brains, cannabis can have a negative effect on brain development, scientists do know that the Endocannabinoid system is closely linked with the process of adult neurogenesis (brain cell growth).

Once again mice were the subjects of research (7) that showed the administration of plant cannabinoids promoted hippocampal neurogenesis – new cell growth in the region of the brain associated both with memory and learning – but also depression and anxiety.

In a follow on study (8) by the University of Saskatchewan, researchers sought to find out whether this hippocampal neurogenesis could explain the apparent anti anxiety and antidepressant effects of cannabinoids. Using a synthetic cannabinoid called HU-210 on rats, they found it gave rise to both the growth of ‘newborn neurons’ in the hippocampal area but also reduced anxiety and depression like behaviour in the animal subjects.

Thus showing that ‘cannabinoids appear to be the only illicit drug whose capacity to produce increased hippocampal newborn neurons is positively correlated with its anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects’.

4. Cannabis may slow the progression of some neurodegenerative diseases

We’ve seen that cannabis can potentially be a neuroprotector, but what effect does it have on slowing the progress of illnesses related to the brain and central nervous system?

So far, as generally is the case with research into the use of cannabis to treat disease, most findings are at the pre-clinical stage on animal models, or in the laboratory.

One such trial (9) has shown how CBD can reduce neural inflammation in mice injected with amyloid-beta, the protein that scientists believe leads to neuronal cell death in Alzheimer’s.

Research (10) carried out in 2014 at the University of South Florida showed that extremely low doses of THC actually reduces amyloid-beta production. “THC is known to be a potent antioxidant with neuroprotective properties, but this is the first report that the compound directly affects Alzheimer’s pathology by decreasing amyloid beta levels, inhibiting its aggregation, and enhancing mitochondrial function,” said study lead author Chuanhai Cao, PhD of the study.

By increasing mitochondrial function it also means a healthier brain due to a better energy supply and improved signalling.

5. Cannabis can make Alzheimer’s patients less agitated

A small amount of clinical trials have taken place on Alzheimer’s patients using cannabinoids to lessen levels of agitation.

One double-blind, placebo-controlled, six-week, crossover study of 12 patients suffering from Alzheimer-type dementia reported that 5 mg of dronabinol (delta 9-THC) daily was associated with a decrease in disturbed behaviour (11).

A recent study (12) carried out on 11 patients in Israel found that out of the 10 patients that completed the trial ingesting medical cannabis oil, researchers recorded “significant reduction” in behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Researchers concluded that ‘adding medical cannabis oil  to Alzheimer’s patients’ pharmacotherapy is safe and a promising treatment option’.

6. Cannabis may protect the brain against serious brain trauma

5.3 million people live with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the US, a number comparable to those living with Alzheimer’s. It is caused by a severe blow to the head and resulting symptoms can include cognitive problems such as headache, difficulty thinking, memory problems, attention deficits, mood swings and frustration.

TBI is also proving an exciting area of research for the potential therapeutic use of cannabinoids. THC in particular has been shown to protect the brain from long term damage following a traumatic injury. In a study (13) carried out on mice by Professor Yosef Sarne of Tel Aviv University, very low doses of THC administered over a long period of time were found to ‘protect the brain from long-term cognitive damage in the wake of injury from hypoxia (lack of oxygen), seizures, or toxic drugs’.

Not only did they find that THC minimised the damage to the brain following an injury, but if administered before the incident it could prevent brain injury from occurring in the first place. It seems strange to suggest taking THC just in case a brain trauma might occur, but in instances such as major surgery when blood supply to the brain is interrupted, THC’s neuroprotection could be of benefit.

This theory appears to be backed up by a study (14) carried out at a hospital in California reviewing the data of 446 adults treated for brain injuries. Overall 1 in 5 patients tested positive for THC and compared to the patients who hadn’t tested positive, they were statistically 80% less likely to die from their injuries.

While this doesn’t demonstrate a direct cause and effect between THC use and survival from serious brain trauma, the findings certainly highlight the potential use of cannabinoids for giving the best chances of recovery.

7. Cannabis could limit brain damage resulting from strokes

Whereas a TBI is caused by an external force injuring the brain, a stroke occurs when due to a thickening of the arteries, there is poor blood flow to the brain, resulting in cell death, partial paralysis etc.

Scientists are slowly beginning to realise how the endocannabinoid system is activated during a stroke (15) whereby ‘activation of the CB receptors leads to cellular changes that are extremely relevant to ischemic injury (stroke damage): they regulate glutamate release, nitric oxide synthesis, growth factor expression, cellular antioxidant activity, the release of inflammatory cytokines, and leukocyte adhesion to cerebral vessels.’

Both CBD and THC’s ability to block the neurotransmitter glutamate, produced when the brain is deprived of oxygen, once again come to the fore as a way to limit cell death following a stroke. In a study (16) published in 2010 scientists concluded that ‘CBD had a potent and long-lasting neuroprotective effect and prevented progressive post-ischemic injury’ and ‘that repeated treatment with CBD from 1 day or 3 days after cerebral ischemia improved the functional deficits, such as neurological score and motor coordination, and survival rates’.

Another rodent study (17) showed Cannabidiol to have ‘a protective effect on neuronal death induced by ischemia (stroke)’ indicating that it ‘might exert beneficial therapeutic effects in brain ischemia’.

So contrary to the commonly held belief that cannabis leads to the loss of precious neurones, studies increasingly show the potential benefits for protecting our ageing brains against neurodegeneration and even injury from external forces.

It’s clear that there is a lot still to understand about the endocannabinoid system’s role in these particular diseases, but scientists remain hopeful that the many theories honed in the lab may one day move forward into the realms of clinical trials, and eventually to treatment for patients.

5 Surprising Things to Know About the Endocannabinoid System

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is one of the most important components of the body, yet it remains largely a mystery to us today. Understanding the ECS is important for both cannabis users and non-users alike, as its impact on health is unparalleled.


The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is one of the most important components of the body. The number of physiological processes it is responsible for or involved in is truly staggering. Understanding the ECS is important for both cannabis users and non-users alike, as its impact on health is unparalleled. Given its integral roles in biology, the ECS appears in many surprising and unexpected places.

What Is the Endocannabinoid System and What Is Its Role?

The Endocannabinoid System For Dummies (We’ve Made It Easy For You)

Have you ever been confused about the endocannabinoid system? Educate yourself. This guide will tell you everything you need to know.

Anna Wilcox


Have you ever wondered how THC works? Well, it just-so-happens to be a similar shape to a compound our bodies create naturally. Thanks to its shape, THC is able to tap into a network in our bodies called the endocannabinoid system. It’s this ability that gives THC it’s psychoactive effects. But, what is the endocannabinoid system and what does it do? To help you understand, we’ve created a handy guide to the endocannabinoid system for dummies. 

What is the endocannabinoid system (ECS)?

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) refers to a collection of cell receptors and corresponding molecules. You can think of cell receptors like little locks on the surface of your cells. The keys to these locks are chemical molecules called agonists. Each time an agonist binds to a cell it relays a message, giving your cell specific direction.

The endocannabinoid system is the name for a series of cell receptors that respond to certain kinds of agonists. Two primary cell receptors make up the ECS, Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1) and Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2). The keys for these receptors are called endocannabinoids.

Endocannabinoids are like the body’s natural THC. In fact, endocannabinoids got their name from cannabis. Plant cannabinoids were discovered first. Endo means within, and cannabinoid referring to a compound that fits into cannabinoid receptors.

There are two main endocannabinoid molecules, named anandamide and 2-Ag. Funny thing, scientists wouldn’t have discovered anandamide without THC. Psychoactive (THC) was first discovered by Israeli scientist Raphael Mechoulam back in the 1960s. His finding quickly spurred a rush to figure out how THC worked, and whether or not our own bodies produced a similar compound.

More than two decades after the search began, anandamide was found. Yet, once they isolated the chemical, they faced another challenge. What should it be called? They turned to Sanskrit. Anandamide comes from the Sanskrit word Ananda, which means bliss. So, basically, anandamide means bliss molecule.

What does the ECS do?

Cannabinoid receptors are found all throughout the body, giving them a wide variety of functions. However, certain receptors are more concentrated in specific regions. CB1 receptors are abundant in the central nervous system. CB2 receptors are more often found on immune cells, in the gastrointestinal tract, and in the peripheral nervous system.

The diversity of receptor locations shows just how important endocannabinoids are for day-to-day bodily function. They help regulate the following:

  • Sleep
  • Appetite, digestion, hunger
  • Mood
  • Motor control
  • Immune function
  • Reproduction and fertility
  • Pleasure and reward
  • Pain
  • Memory
  • Temperature regulation

Endocannabinoids are the chemical messengers that tell your body to get these processes moving and when to stop. They help maintain optimal balance in the body, also known as homeostasis. When the ECS is disrupted, any one of these things can fall out of balance. Dysregulation in the ECS is thought to contribute to a wide variety of conditions, including fibromyalgia and irritable bowel syndrome.

The ECS theory of disease is termed “Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency“.  The idea is simple: when the body does not produce enough endocannabinoids or cannot regulate them properly, you are more susceptible to illnesses that affect one or several of the functions listed above.

Where do endocannabinoids come from?

If your body cannot produce enough endocannabinoids, you might be in for some trouble. But, where do endocannabinoids come from, anyway? This question has another simple answer: diet.

Your body creates endocannabinoids with the help of fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids are especially important for this. Recent research in animal models has found a connection between diets low in omega-3s and mood changes caused by poor endocannabinoid regulation.

Fortunately, hemp seeds are a quality source of omgea-3s. However, fish like salmon and sardines produce a form of omega-3s that is easier for your body to put to use.

Beyond cell receptors

Cannabinoid receptors are often what we associate with the endocannabinoid system. But, the ECS is more complicated than that. Enzymes also have a crucial role to play in the process. In a way, enzymes are kind of like Pacman. They gobble up various compounds, change them, and then spit out the parts. In the ECS, enzymes break down leftover endocannabinoids. Enter non-psychoactive CBD.

Enter non-psychoactive CBD. While THC binds with cannabinoid receptors directly, CBD does not. Instead, it works it’s magic on an enzyme. The enzyme in question is called FAAH, and it is responsible for pulling excess anandamide out of circulation.

CBD puts a stop to this. Psychoactive THC works by mimicking the body’s own endocannabinoids. But, CBD increases the amount of endocannabinoids in your system.

CBD stops enzyme FAAH from breaking down all of the anandamide, and therefore makes more of it available for use by your cells. This is why CBD is a natural mood-lifter without psychoactive effects.

This is just a brief overview of the endocannabinoid system. Each year, new studies shed light into what this amazing network does inside our bodies. The discovery of the ECS is what makes medical cannabis such a big deal.

People often joke about the herb’s ability to heal a wide variety of seemingly unrelated conditions. But, we now understand that these conditions are all regulated in part by the ECS. The medical implications of this finding are endless.

Visualization of the endocannabinoid signaling system.

The Endocannabinioid System: A Look Back and Ahead

G2Voice Broadcast #084: Why do we have the “endocannabinoid” system in the body complete with receptors?

Sunday, April 22nd, 2018



NOTE: Spanish subtitling is being done each week now! Broadcasts 001-005, 064,065, 077-082 are now subtitled in Spanish!


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